Swift MVVM Architectural and Benefits of MVVM || Why use it in MVVM when we have MVC pattern in Swift

Swift MVVM Architectural 

The Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) architecture is a design pattern used in software development, particularly in iOS app development using Swift. MVVM separates the concerns of your application into three main components: Model, View, and ViewModel. Here's a simple explanation of MVVM with a basic example in Swift.

MVVM Overview:

Model (M): Represents the application data and business logic. It does not depend on the View or ViewModel.

View (V): Displays the data and interacts with the user. It observes the ViewModel but does not directly interact with the Model.

ViewModel (VM): Acts as an intermediary between the Model and the View. It fetches the data from the Model and processes it for the View. It also handles user interactions from the View.


Let's create a simple app that displays a list of names using MVVM.

Model (Person.swift):

struct Person {
    var name: String

ViewModel (PersonViewModel.swift):

import Foundation

class PersonViewModel {
    private var people: [Person] = []

    func fetchPeople() {
        // Assume we fetch data from a service or database
        people = [Person(name: "Alice"), Person(name: "Bob"), Person(name: "Charlie")]

    func numberOfPeople() -> Int {
        return people.count

    func person(at index: Int) -> Person {
        return people[index]

View (ViewController.swift):

import UIKit

class ViewController: UIViewController {
    @IBOutlet private weak var tableView: UITableView!

    private var viewModel = PersonViewModel()

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        tableView.dataSource = self

extension ViewController: UITableViewDataSource {
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -> Int {
        return viewModel.numberOfPeople()

    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, cellForRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell {
        let cell = tableView.dequeueReusableCell(withIdentifier: "Cell", for: indexPath)
        let person = viewModel.person(at: indexPath.row)
        cell.textLabel?.text = person.name
        return cell

In this example, the Person struct represents our Model. The PersonViewModel acts as the ViewModel, providing data to the View (ViewController). The ViewController is the View, displaying the data in a table view. The ViewModel is responsible for fetching and managing the data, while the View displays it.

Ensure you have a table view (tableView) in your storyboard with a cell identifier "Cell" and connect the table view outlet to your ViewController.

MVVM Advantages

The Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) architectural pattern offers several benefits when applied to iOS app development:

Separation of Concerns: MVVM separates the app into three distinct layers, making it easier to manage and maintain each part of the codebase. This separation allows developers to focus on one aspect of the app without affecting the others.

Testability: MVVM promotes testability because it decouples the business logic (ViewModel) from the user interface (View). This separation enables unit testing of ViewModel independently of the UI layer, making it easier to write and maintain tests.

Reusability: ViewModel components can often be reused across different parts of the application or even in different projects. This reuse is possible because ViewModel classes encapsulate the presentation and data logic, making them independent of specific views.

Maintainability: MVVM helps maintain a clean and organized codebase. With a clear separation of concerns, it's easier to understand, modify, and extend the code over time. This architectural pattern promotes code that is easier to read and less prone to bugs.

Flexibility: MVVM allows for greater flexibility in UI design. Changes to the user interface (View) can be made without affecting the underlying business logic (ViewModel). Likewise, changes to the data or business logic can be implemented without modifying the UI.

Binding and Reactive Programming: MVVM is well-suited for reactive programming libraries like Combine and RxSwift. These libraries enable automatic synchronization between the ViewModel and the View, reducing boilerplate code for updating UI elements in response to data changes.

Scalability: MVVM scales well to large and complex applications. As the app grows, the separation of concerns provided by MVVM helps prevent codebase bloat and maintain a clean architecture.

Collaboration: MVVM facilitates collaboration between designers and developers. Designers can work on the user interface (View) independently of developers, and the ViewModel serves as a bridge between the two, ensuring that the UI accurately reflects the data and functionality required.

Improved Debugging: With a clear separation between View and ViewModel, debugging becomes more straightforward. Developers can focus on specific components and isolate issues more effectively.

Enhanced User Experience: By isolating presentation logic in the ViewModel, MVVM can lead to a smoother user experience. ViewModel can handle tasks like data formatting, validation, and coordination between different parts of the app.

Adaptation to SwiftUI: MVVM is a natural fit for SwiftUI, Apple's declarative UI framework introduced in iOS 13. SwiftUI aligns well with MVVM's data-driven approach, and SwiftUI views can easily bind to ViewModel properties.

In summary, MVVM is a popular architectural pattern in iOS development due to its ability to provide clear separation of concerns, improved testability, maintainability, and flexibility. It is particularly well-suited for apps with complex user interfaces and those that benefit from reactive programming paradigms.

Why use it in MVVM when we have MVC pattern in Swift?

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern is a commonly used architectural pattern in iOS app development, and it has been around for a long time. However, the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) pattern offers certain advantages over MVC, which might make it a better choice for some iOS projects. Let's discuss why you might choose MVVM over MVC and provide a brief example for each pattern.

Advantages of MVVM over MVC:

Improved Testability: MVVM facilitates better testability by separating the presentation logic (ViewModel) from the View. This separation allows you to write unit tests for the ViewModel more easily without the need for UI testing frameworks.

Reduced Massive View Controller (MVC) Problem: MVVM helps in avoiding the "Massive View Controller" issue commonly associated with MVC. In MVC, View Controllers often become too large and complex due to the mixture of responsibilities, making code maintenance challenging.

Data Binding: MVVM typically uses data binding mechanisms to automatically update the UI when the underlying data changes. This can lead to more responsive and interactive user interfaces without the need for manual UI updates.

Reusability: ViewModels in MVVM can be reused across multiple Views, making it easier to adapt the same logic to different parts of the app or even to different platforms like macOS or watchOS.

Separation of Concerns: MVVM enforces a clearer separation of concerns by design, making it easier to understand and maintain the codebase over time.

Here's a simple example to illustrate the difference between MVC and MVVM:

MVC Example:

Suppose you have a task-list app. In MVC, you might structure it like this:

// Model
struct Task {
    let title: String
    var isCompleted: Bool

// View Controller
class TaskListViewController: UIViewController {
    @IBOutlet weak var tableView: UITableView!
    var tasks: [Task] = []

    // View Controller handles both data and UI updates.
    func updateUI() {
        // Code to update the table view with tasks.

In this MVC example, the View Controller is responsible for both managing data (tasks) and updating the UI, which can lead to a massive View Controller over time.

MVVM Example:

Now, let's see how the same task-list app might be structured using MVVM:

// Model
struct Task {
    let title: String
    var isCompleted: Bool

// ViewModel
class TaskListViewModel {
    var tasks: [Task] = []

    // ViewModel handles data.
    func fetchData() {
        // Code to fetch tasks from a data source.

// View Controller
class TaskListViewController: UIViewController {
    @IBOutlet weak var tableView: UITableView!
    var viewModel = TaskListViewModel()

    // View Controller is responsible for UI updates.
    func updateUI() {
        // Code to update the table view with tasks from viewModel.

In this MVVM example, the ViewModel takes care of managing and providing data, while the View Controller focuses on handling UI updates. This separation of concerns and improved testability are key advantages of MVVM over MVC.

Ultimately, whether you choose MVC or MVVM depends on the specific requirements and complexity of your project, as well as your team's familiarity with the patterns. Both patterns have their strengths and can be used effectively in iOS development.

Thanks for reading!!

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